The KINARM End-Point Lab is a versatile research facility to study sensory, motor and cognitive function.
BKIN’s standard system includes:
• One or two KINARM End-Point robots for the upper limbs
• Desktop display or 2D virtual/augmented reality display
• Optional Adjustable Height Configuration with integrated force plates and gaze-tracking.
• Dexterit-E™ experimental control software and hardware
Key features include:
High Performance Robot
The KINARM End-Point robot is a stiff, graspable robot that can create highly complex mechanical environments. Optional high-resolution secondary encoders and force/torque sensors provide outstanding feedback signals.
Designed for Bilateral Studies
BKIN’s designed the Lab to be bilateral ensuring simultaneous control of both KINARM End-Point robots which is essential for comparison of inter-arm performance, and the study of bimanual coordination. Any unilateral system can be upgraded to bilateral post purchase (subject to component availability).
2D Virtual/Augmented Reality
Optional 2D virtual reality display for natural, intuitive presentation of visual stimuli.
KINARM End-Point Labs are modular in design, providing a simple way to build a lab over time as needs and funds expand. Start with a single, robot and data acquisition system and upgrade later to a deluxe lab with two robots and integrated virtual/augmented (subject to component availability).
Standing or Sitting Use (optional)
An Adjustable Height configuration is available for postural research to enable use of the robots while the subject is standing on force plates or sitting; compatible with subject sizes ranging from 38″ (96.5 cm) (~5 yrs old) to 84″ (2.1 m) tall.
Any existing KINARM End-Point Lab can be upgraded to the AHC.
Integrated Gaze-Tracking (optional)
A head-free gaze-tracker solution that: simplifies experimental set-up, ensuring nothing interferes with the head which is especially important in clinical research; and is easily accommodated in the KINARM Virtual Reality System where space is limited.
KINARM users benefit from an exponential increase in experimental possibilities, without the headache of having to customize and coordinate multiple hardware solutions.
Any existing KINARM Lab can be upgraded to include gaze-tracking.
Easy To Use and Powerful
System includes Dexterit-E behavioural control and data acquisition software, which combines the power of a real-time operating system with the ease of a Windows™-based interface. KINARM Standard Tests™ optionally available.
Standard Unilateral or Bilateral Robots &
A good starter configuration includes a robot with secondary encoder, data acquisition system with Dexterit-E, Virtual Reality Display, robot stand and locking chair
Adjustable Height Configuration with Gaze-Tracking
This fully featured option is a highly flexible research platform to study upper limb voluntary control and its integration with whole body postural control.
Deluxe Unilateral or Bilateral Robots, Dexterit-E & Integrated Virtual Reality
Our most popular configuration adds integrated virtual reality and options such as 6-degree of freedom force-torque sensors in the end-points. The configuration includes: 1 or 2 robots, secondary encoders, force-torque sensors, robot stand and chair, virtual reality display, data acquisition system with Dexterit-E and optional gaze-tracker.
Unilateral Robot & Dexterit-E
Our lowest price option includes a single KINARM End-Point Robot, and data acquisition system with Dexterit-E and desktop display.
- One or two KINARM End-Point robots
- High-resolution secondary encoders for improved performance (must be included at time of original purchase)
- 6 degree-of-freedom force/torque sensors
- Workstation to support KINARM End-Point robots and subject display
- Desktop display or integrated virtual/augmented reality presentation of 2D virtual targets in the workspace plane
- Dexterit-E™ experimental control software and hardware
- A library of Simulink® blocks to assist with rapid custom task program creation (MATLAB® and Simulink® must be purchased separately)
- KINARM Standard Tests
- Control hardware to run Dexterit-E (including a real-time computer for precise and safe action)
- Data acquisition hardware, including up to 32 channels of analog input, 4 channels of analog output and 30 channels of digital input/output.
- KINARM Gaze-Tracker (requires integrated virtual reality)
Robot & System Specifications
- Peak torque pulse of 58 N
- Feedback resolution of 3 microns with optional secondary encoders or 15 microns without
- End-point stiffness (mechanical planar) of ~40,000 N/m with optional secondary encoders or 16,000 N/m without
- 76 cm x 44 cm elliptical workspace per robot; 118 cm x 44 cm combined elliptical workspace for bilateral system.
- Effective inertia of 0.8/1.0 kg (minor/major axes)
- Real-time control and data acquisition at 1 kHz
- Minimum suggested lab size 10’x10′ (3 m x 3m)
KINARM Gaze-Tracker Specifications
- Sampling Rate: 500 Hz.
- Subject Setup: requires a quick 13 point calibration
- Resolution: 0.05°RMS; saccade resolution of 0.25°
- Accuracy: ~0.5° with minimal head movement; up to ~1° with extreme head motion
- Workspace Area: elliptically shaped of ~50 cm x ~30 cm (~55° in the horizontal; ~40° in the vertical). The range does not cover the entire Virtual Reality workspace which is 76 cm x 44 cm. The gaze-tracker is centered in the middle of the KINARM Lab workspace to optimize the range.
- Recovery from Loss of Tracking: fast recovery through use of target sticker.
Adjustable Height Configuration (AHC)
Subjects can sit or stand in the lab and interact with 1 or 2 robots at any height. Safety is assured with a fall arrest system. Integrated force-plates capture postural information. The retracting virtual reality display allows use of the plates on their own. Optional integrated gaze-tracking completes the whole-body behavior suite.
Supported Subject Sizes
Range of Heights & Weight: The AHC electronically adjusts the KINARM End-Point Robot heights to enable comfortable use of the robot standing or sitting with subject sizes ranging from 38″ (96.5 cm; ~5 yrs old) to 84″ or 7′ (2.1 m) tall and maximum weight of 400 lb (182 kg). Space requirements: 15′ x 12′ (4.6 m x 3.7 m) and 8′-10″ (2.7 m) ceiling height for unrestricted operation.
Required Room Dimensions
It is recommended that the room dimensions are at least:
- 15′ x 12′ (4.6 m x 3.7 m) uncarpeted floor space. This includes space for a desk for the operator to use the computer control system.
- 8′-10″ (2.7 m) ceiling height for unrestricted operation.
- Robot lift only
- Lift, platform and force plate(s)
- Lift, platform, force plates and gaze-tracker
- One or two KINARM End-Point Robots can be used
- Robot upgrades of secondary encoders or force-torque sensors are both highly recommended
- KINARM Gaze-Tracker optional
- KINARM Standard Tests is recommended for new users. (as of Dexterit-E 3.5, available tests do not use or report gaze-tracking or force plate data in the analyses. This data is available for external analysis through the data export feature in Dexterit-E.)
- Any existing KINARM End-Point Lab can be upgraded to the AHC
- Multi-axis force plates are mounted in a platform that rests on existing lab-floor (1 or 2 plate configuration available)
- Platform is 8″ (20 cm) above the floor
- Plates may be optionally set into an existing floor by the customer
- Platform width (6′-6″/2 m) is sufficient to enable use of the Lab in “stand-up” or “sit-down” mode with the chair remaining on the platform.
- Virtual Reality Display can retract or swing “up and away” to enable use of force plates without interference from the display.
- Subject Fall Arrest system is standard on all systems ensuring subject safety during experiments.
The KINARM End-Point Lab is the system of choice when high stiffness and hand-based haptic feedback is part of the experimental protocol. Studies range from human motor control and learning in altered visual or mechanical environments, to solving complex cognitive problems, to eye-hand coordination.
For example, the KINARM End-Point robot is excellent at creating haptic fields that simulate a wall. The robot’s mechanical stiffness is 40,000 N/m. Haptic walls are created by implementing a very stiff spring; the stiffest spring possible is ~10,000 N/m. When the mechanical stiffness is combined with the model of the spring, the stiffness that the subject actually feels is 8,000 N/m. As a comparison, the classic studies involving force channels used a spring of 6,000 N/m.
The primary limitation with the End-Point Lab is that no information on the kinematics or kinetics of the elbow or shoulder are captured, nor can either joint be controlled.
NHP neurophysiology studies or training
While the KINARM End-Point Lab was originally designed for the needs of human research, the system is sufficiently robust to support NHP use. Some of our NHP Exoskeleton customers use the KINARM End-Point Lab to provide colony-based training for NHPs.
The KINARM End-Point Lab can be customized for NHP use. Contact us about your research needs.
While the KINARM Exoskeleton Lab is generally recommended for researchers studying acute stroke because of the need for gravity support to the upper-limb, some customers have chosen to use the KINARM End-Point Lab for chronic stroke studies. For these users, BKIN has provided an optional handle that provides some gravity support to the hand.
BKIN created a custom “rollable” KINARM End-Point Lab for a customer conducting research in the emergency room of the university hospital. Allowing the Lab to move to the “point-of-care” minimized subject movement in the ER.
A number of studies are underway in out-patient settings trying to identify more sensitive tools for neurological impairment. An example is in Cardiac Arrest where, using KINARM Standard Tests, the study has identified impairments following discharge in otherwise “healthy” subjects. Family members’ concerns brought them to the clinic.
Identification of objective measures for return-to-play decisions following concussion is an area of high need. A number of research studies are underway with the Adjustable Height Configuration for the KINARM End-Point Lab. With the additional benefit of collecting postural data during use of KINARM Standard Tests, the researchers are hoping to identify sensitive markers for return-to-play decisions.