BKIN Technologies supports basic researchers and clinician-scientists with advanced assessment systems to quantify sensorimotor performance and behaviour in awake behaving NHPs. BKIN has recently re-designed the NHP KINARM Exoskeleton Lab to enable full accessibility at the head (important for single cell recordings of bilateral behaviour) and to increase robot stiffness. Motors are now mounted below the shoulder in the patented linkage design.
Components of NHP KINARM Exoskeleton Lab
- One or two motorized KINARM Exoskeleton robot(s). Because each robot in the new NHP KINARM Exoskeleton lab has a dedicated handedness, research labs that intend to study both right and left arms require two robotic linkages. If only one arm will be studied at a time, then a single K-Box is provided to control one of the robots, whereas if both arms will be studied simultaneously, two K-boxes are provided to control both robots.
- Virtual reality stand with integrated visual display for presentation of 2D virtual targets in the actual plane of limb motion
- BKIN’s “arms-free” NHP restraint chair with adjustable seat, footrest, belly-rest, back-rest, and hip-restraints
- Interface to external data acquisition system (analog and digital outputs) (optional)
- Dexterit-E data acquisition and experimental control software
- Computer systems to run Dexterit-E (including a real-time computer for precise and safe action)
- A library of Simulink® blocks to assist with rapid Custom Task Program creation (MATLAB® and Simulink® must be purchased separately)
- Real-time control and data acquisition at 1kHz
- Peak torque pulse of 4Nm at shoulder, 3Nm at elbow (~8N at the hand)
- Feedback resolution of 0.0006° (~3microns at the hand) with optional secondary encoders (0.006° and ~25 microns without)
- End-point mechanical stiffness of 19,500 N/m with secondary encoders or 7,900 N/m without.
- 24″ diagonal (4:3 aspect) usable workspace
- 16 or 32 16-bit Digital to Analog channels, plus 24 Digital I/O
- Fits wide range of NHP sizes (~4.5-14 kg – maximum collar ID of 4″)
- Minimum lab footprint 8’x8′ (Bilateral system)
“Arms Free” Restraint Chair
- BKIN’s “Arms Free” NHP chair is a versatile restraint chair with modular shielding that can allow the researcher to choose no arms free, one arm free, or both arms free. It is ideal for those experiments requiring almost complete freedom of movement for one or both arms.
- Removable plexiglass enclosures permits free motion of both, one or neither arm
- Seat and panel locations are easily moveable to permit use with multiple NHPs
- Forward-oriented posture is maintained by “hip blocks” that rotate from the side and a backrest that slides in from the back.
- Angled neck plate for comfortable posture and wide vertical viewing angles
- Available collar sizes:
- BKIN supplied 5” outside diameter: 2.5, 3, 3.5 and 4 inch inside diameters
- Primate Product supplied 4” outside diameter collars
Integration with Third Party Systems
BKIN Dexterit-E can be configured to work with an external data acquisition system, such as Plexon, Tucker Davis, Blackrock
Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature Review Neuroscience (2004 Jul;5(7):532-46), copyright (2004) doi:10.1038/nrn1427
NHP KINARM Exoskeleton Labs has been influential in uncovering many novel aspects of voluntary motor control and the development of brain-computer interfaces in the emerging field of neuroprosthetics. NHP KINARM Exoskeleton Labs has been influential in uncovering many novel aspects of voluntary motor control and the development of brain-computer interfaces in the emerging field of neuroprosthetics [(linkcall out to support/publications/neurophys category). The NHP KINARM Exoskeleton (Kinesiological Instrument for Normal and Altered Reaching Movements; Scott, 1999), was first designed to address the difficulty of quantifying and manipulating the mechanics of multi-joint motion in the NHP. Scott extended the design to a human-sized version providing further insight on motor learning (e.g. Singh and Scott, 2003). He then modified the system to a make it more clinically-friendly and include two robots, one for each limb (Nozaki et al., 2006).
This technology has been influential in uncovering many novel aspects of voluntary motor control. Scott lab has had over a dozen Nature series publications (Scott et al., 2001; Gribble and Scott, 2002; Singh and Scott, 2003; Kurtzer et al., 2005; Nozaki et al., 2006; Pruszynski et al., 2011); others such as Hatsopoulos Lab (Rubino et al., 2006), Bastian Lab (Bhanpuri et al., 2014) and Carmena Lab (Gangully et al., 2011) have had similar success. Scott is currently focused on optimal feedback control (OFC) as a theory of voluntary control (Todorov and Jordan, 2002). He has been one of the leaders in the field articulating the importance and impact of this new theory, particularly its implications on the neural basis of control (Scott, 2004).
NHP KINARM Exoskeleton Labs in conjunction with a customized KINARM Standard Tests suite, are enabling the assessment of novel drug therapies in stroke and Parkinson’s disease.
Some NHP KINARM Exoskeleton users are customizing the KINARM End-Point Lab to provide cage-based training for NHPs. The KINARM End-Point Lab can be customized for NHP use. We’re happy to discuss your research needs.